Sheldon Aubut's Duluth History
W W II in Duluth
1941 Pearl Harbor, World War II begins for the United States
#2 Tires, Gas (Gas was rationed to keep tire wear down; Rubber was what was needed).
#3 Processed foods, Coffee, Meat, Cheese, Butter
#4 Shoes, Typewriters, Automobiles, Bicycles, Pressure Cookers
#5 Delivery Service
#6 Restaurant Price Ceilings
Scrap Iron and Steel (Jail Cells, Street Car Tracks, Cannons, etc.)
Newspapers and Magazines
Silk and Nylon Hosiery (to make Parachutes and Explosives)
Clothing and Rags
Rubber, Books, Radio Parts, Old Recordings, Phonographs,
Keys, "Smokes for Yanks", "Junk Jewelry" (for barter)
WWII Civil Defense in Duluth
355 Cutters, Net Tenders, Water Tenders, Tankers, Net Layers, Coastal
Cargoes, oceangoing Cargoes, Frigates, oceangoing Tugs, SubChasers, Plane
ReArming Boats and Barges were built in Duluth and Superior
2500 Air Raid Wardens and Regular Blackouts
200 Harbor Patrol (U.S. Power Squadron and their Boats)
300 Volunteer Port Security
370 U.S.O. Hostesses
War Bond Campaigns
House by House Canvassing
Auxiliary Police and Firemen
Red Cross First Aid Classes
Knitting, Surgical Dressings, Garments for Rehabilitation
Recruitment of Nurses
Home Service (Messages to and from POW's, Financial Aid
Junior Red Cross
British War Relief
Public Relations Effort (This is Duluth)
1942 April 28 (Home Front) Coastal "blackouts" go into effect along a fifteen mile strip on the Eastern Seaboard. German submarines had been sinking merchant shipping viewing silhouettes against the lighted skylines of towns and cities.
May 15 (Home front) Gasoline rationing goes into effect.
1942 December 1 (Home front) Coffee and gasoline join the list of rationed items.
February 7 (Home front) Shoe rationing is announced, limiting civilians to three pairs of leather shoes per year.
April 1 (Home front) Meats, fats, and cheese are now rationed. Attempting to stem inflation, President Roosevelt freezes wages, salaries, and prices.
1943 German Prisoners of War are sent to logging camps around Deer River (west of Grand Rapids) to ease labor shortage. Labor unions complained that they were depriving Americans of their jobs.
1940's Antibiotics (penicillin, etc.) were developed, TB threat eased . Sulfa was the drug of choice for Army medics prior to WWII. It was a powder which was sprinkled on wounds to prevent infection. But it really didn't work that well. Penicillin became the first of a new category of synthetic pharmaceutical drugs which cured or mitigated a variety of diseases. Penicillin was discovered about 1930. But it was extremely expensive to manufacture in quantity and it took the crisis of WWII to give a budget mandated that all drug manufacturers must devote resources towards the miracle drug.
May 3 (Home front) Meat rationing ends, except for certain select cuts.
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt v. Thomas Dewey. The Democrats accepted Roosevelt for a fourth term nomination, but they refused to accept Henry Wallace of Iowa for a second term as Vice-President because of his "very" liberal views. The compromise choice was Harry S Truman who, although a machine politician from Kansas City, Missouri, had made a favorable name for himself as the head of the Committee investigating fraud and profiteering on war materials contracts. A month after the inauguration Roosevelt was dead and Truman was President.
From the files of Ray Marshall -- email@example.com
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January 15, 2011
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